Sutter Medical Center, Sacramento

How to Stay Safe with Rising Heat and COVID-19 Cases

Posted on Jun 26, 2020 in Carousel, Pediatric Care, Quality, Safety, Scroll Images, Sutter Medical Center, Sacramento

Temperatures are rising in Northern California, and so are confirmed cases of COVID-19. How do you keep safe from both? Stay home, says an emergency medicine physician with Sutter Medical Center, Sacramento.

“Our recommendation for the heat is stay inside and exercise intelligently; that’s kind of what we would say about COVID-19. They overlap,” said Arthur Jey, M.D. “Because it’s so hot, we’re not going to want to go out anyway, so it’s a good excuse to stay home with your family.”

With communities opening up and more area residents wanting to take advantage of the great outdoors and other opportunities, Dr. Jey pleads for folks to keep their masks on … or at least handy. Popular activities in the region include walking and hiking, which are great ways to get some fresh air and exercise at the same time. Won’t wearing a mask make you even hotter?

“When you’re outside, walking and hiking, and there’s no one around, you don’t need to wear the mask,” he said. “But you don’t know when you’re going to come close to someone, so keep your mask close by. I am always wearing a mask around my neck or it’s in my pocket. As soon as someone approaches, I put it on. … When there are people around, my mask is on all the time.”

During an interview with the media, Dr. Jey gave some other tips on how to avoid heat-related illnesses, from heat rashes and sunburns to heat exhaustion and heat stroke. Those most susceptible to the heat illnesses include toddlers who can’t communicate that they’re suffering, the very old, and those who have to work in the sun, including farm and construction workers.

What and How Much to Drink

If you are out in the sun, Dr. Jey says the best thing to do is drink a lot of fluids. He recommends good, ol’ plain H2O. Not ice-cold water that can cause cramps, but cooled water. He also recommends sugar-free electrolyte drinks, which are good ways to replenish those essential minerals when working out. Avoid alcoholic beverages along with sodas and sports drinks that contain sugar.

“Make sure you’re smart about what you drink,’ he said. “Alcohol is going to dehydrate you. Really heavy sugared water, like Gatorade, is going to dehydrate you. Electrolyte waters with low or no sugar, fantastic. Water, fantastic.”

He also says it’s not important to count how much fluids to take in, but rather to sip consistently and continually, not a lot at one time. “Everyone asks me how much to drink. Many medical professionals say drink eight to 10 glasses a day. But really, just try to drink well.” He said to take sips at least every half an hour while out in the sun. His counsel: “Don’t wait until you’re thirsty to take a drink.”

He also recommends that those going outside wear light, loose clothing and a hat. “I tend to wear baseball caps a lot, but they aren’t the best choice. The ones that you really want are the wide-brimmed ones, like the fishing hats, that cover the back of your neck. We’ve all been sunburned there before.”

What to Do When You’re Feeling the Heat

“There’s a whole continuum of heat-related diseases,” Dr. Jey says, and they progressively worsen as you’re exposed longer to the hot weather.

1.       Heat rashes, which is a reddening of the skin.

2.       Sunburns, which can be very painful.

3.       Heat exhaustion, when you’re still sweating, but you’re feeling a little woozy or nauseous. Your urine at that point is a darker yellow.

4.       Heat stroke.

“This is when it gets scary,” Dr. Jey says. “You stop sweating and your thinking slows down, and you feel horrible. You look like you’re having a stroke; that’s why it’s called heat stroke. I’ve seen people come in completely confused, acting like they’re almost drunk, that’s when you really get scared. The way you prevent that is that you don’t wait until you’re thirsty to start drinking water.”

He says when heat stroke is happening, the first step is to get out of the heat and let someone know you’re not feeling good. That’s why toddlers who aren’t talking yet are very susceptible to heat illness, because they can’t verbalize how they’re feeling.

Next step: “Get some water in you. Don’t chug it, don’t drink a whole gallon of it. Just sit down in the shade or some air conditioning and sip some water. And, if you don’t get better, then come see us at Sutter.”

Dr. Jey said, even during this pandemic, don’t be afraid to go to the emergency room when you are in a medical emergency, whether it’s heat stroke, a real stroke, or any other kind.

“We get concerned that you push things off too far,” he said. “Our nurses and physicians here work really hard to make sure that we keep you safe. … So if you start feeling problems with temperature, problems with the heat, or for that matter, trouble breathing, come see us. Don’t be scared. We have a separate area for those who we think might have COVID-19. Especially now when we’re starting to have another uprising of it. We’re very cautious of it. But I don’t want that to stop people from coming in when they have other illnesses.”

The Sacramento Bee posted one of Dr. Jey’s interviews on heat illnesses. Click here to watch it, and notice his mask is around his neck for when someone comes close!

Program Designed to Attract Docs to Rural Areas Receives Accreditation

Posted on May 15, 2020 in Community Benefit, Expanding Access, Scroll Images, Sutter Amador Hospital, Sutter Medical Center, Sacramento, Uncategorized

The Sutter Rural Residency Program received a U.S. grant last year and this week was accredited and is ready to screen applicants. Leaders involved in the program include, from left, Dineen Greer, M.D., program director of the Sutter Family Medicine Residency Program; Sutter Amador Hospital CEO Tom Dickson; HRSA regional administrator Capt. John Moroney, M.D; Jackson Mayor Robert Stimpson; Sutter Valley Area Chief Medical Officer Ash Gokli, M.D.; former Sutter Amador CEO Anne Platt; and Robert Hartmann, M.D., longtime Amador County internal medicine physician and an instructor in the Rural Residency Program.

JACKSON, Calif. – Sutter Amador Hospital’s Rural Residency Program this week received accreditation from ACGME (Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education), the organization responsible for accrediting all graduate medical training programs for physicians in the United States. This Sutter Health program is designed to bring more primary-care physicians to rural regions, which have been hampered throughout the country by a shortage of family doctors.

The ACGME accreditation allows the Sutter Health Rural Residency Program to begin screening and selecting residency applicants. Those selected – two each year for six total in the program – will complete core inpatient training in Sacramento during the first year, with their next two years on the campus of Sutter Amador Hospital and in community medical offices.

The goal of the Sutter Health program is to develop a sustainable, accredited rural training track in Amador County and to ultimately expand the area’s rural primary-care workforce. In Amador County, there is a high need for primary-care physicians (PCPs) in the area as the ratio of the population to one PCP is 1,760-to-1; the ratio throughout the state of California is 1,280-to-1, according to the County Health Rankings and Roadmaps website.

“This is welcome news for Amador County, as it will provide an influx of bright, young physicians into our community to care for our families and should give us a steady supply of primary-care physicians for years to come,” said longtime Amador County internal medicine physician Robert Hartmann, M.D., who will be one of the instructors in the Rural Residency Program. “This is a major collaborative accomplishment between Sutter Amador Hospital, Sutter Medical Group physicians and the Sutter Family Medicine Residency Program.”

The Rural Residency Program was made possible through a grant from the U.S. Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA), which allows not-for-profit Sutter Health to expand its successful Sacramento-based physician residency program to Amador County as part of the federal agency’s efforts to provide better access to quality medical care in rural areas.

Since its inception in 1995, the Sutter Family Medicine Residency Program has graduated 139 physicians, all of whom passed their Board Certification assessments on the first effort. Currently there are 21 residents in the program, and the Amador County program will expand the program to 27 residents.

“We are working to strengthen the physician pipeline throughout our integrated network so our patients receive the same high-quality care no matter where they live,” said Dineen Greer, M.D., program director of the Family Medicine Residency Program. “We have combined a strong, dedicated core faculty, community preceptors, innovative curriculum and access to Sutter hospitals so that our residents develop the skills needed to be outstanding family physicians and leaders in their communities.”

The accreditation was welcome news for the state legislators who serve the Gold Country. State Sen. Andreas Borgeas said: “The physician shortage continues to be a prevalent issue in Amador County and many rural areas of California. I offer my sincere congratulations and gratitude to Sutter Health on the program’s latest achievement, and for its targeted effort to bring much-needed family practice physicians to our community. This is a significant step to help expand access to quality care for our communities in the beautiful, remote areas of our state.”

State Assemblyman Frank Bigelow echoed Sen. Borgeas’ sentiment. “Sutter Health has long supported hospitals in more rural regions of California and they understand how family doctor shortages can have a negative impact on a community’s health,” Bigelow said. “I am so pleased they are pursuing this program and continuing their investment in bringing needed primary care physicians to Amador communities.”

Drs. Greer and Hartmann expect the program to be successful in filling the need for well-trained, community-minded primary-care physicians in Amador County and the greater Mother Lode region.

“The medical students applying for this residency opportunity will enter the program with a strong desire to serve in rural communities,” said Dr. Hartmann, “so their career focus will be the health and well-being of families in our towns and smaller cities. This is great for the future of health care in our community.”

For more on the Sutter Family Medicine Residency Program, go to www.suttermd.com/education/residency/family-medicine

How a Pandemic Launched a NorCal Healthcare System

Posted on Apr 14, 2020 in Carousel, Community Benefit, Expanding Access, Innovation, People, Quality, Scroll Images, Sutter Medical Center, Sacramento, Transformation, Uncategorized

Spanish Flu
A nurse takes a patient’s pulse in the influenza ward at Walter Reed Hospital in Washington, D.C., on Nov. 1, 1918. Photo courtesy of Library of Congress.

The pandemic started slowly in Sacramento. For weeks, residents of the city believed what was going around was just the usual flu that arrived every fall. But in just two months, thousands in the city had been infected and about 500 Sacramentans were dead.

That happened a century ago. Because of the inadequacy of the existing Sacramento hospitals to care for the numerous victims of the Spanish flu in 1918, local doctors and civic leaders banded together to build a new, more modern hospital to meet the growing city’s needs.

Sutter Health was born.

Begun as a single Sutter Hospital kitty-corner to Sutter’s Fort, Sutter Health now has a presence in 22 counties across Northern California, featuring thousands of doctors and allied clinical providers and more than 50,000 employees. As an integrated health system, Sutter is uniquely qualified and capable to care for residents during a health crisis such as COVID-19.

“A group of hospitals and doctor’s offices are able to band together, share resources, skills and knowledge, and institute best practices to care more effectively and efficiently for our patients and the communities we serve,” said Dave Cheney, the interim president and CEO of Sutter Valley Area Hospitals and the CEO of Sutter Medical Center, Sacramento. “We have systems in place that we test all the time to ensure we are prepared for many crises, including a pandemic like COVID-19.”

Groudbreaking
Just a few years after the devastating Spanish flu, Sacramento physicians, nurses and civic leaders gathered to break ground in 1922 for the first Sutter Hospital.

Physicians Fill a Need in Sacramento

The deadly influenza commonly called Spanish flu killed about 50 million worldwide. From August 1918 to July 1919, 20 million Americans became sick and more than 500,000 died, 13,340 of them in California. In Sacramento, slow action by the city public health office delayed care and, within a couple of weeks, sick residents flooded the hospitals. The city library was even converted into a makeshift hospital. A Sutter Medical Center, Sacramento history recounts: 

“The influenza epidemic of 1918 gave convincing evidence to Sacramento doctors that the city’s two major hospitals were woefully inadequate to provide the health care services vital to the rapidly growing community. The flu epidemic had sorely taxed these facilities and highlighted the need for a modern, fireproof hospital. Recognizing the critical need for hospital care for their patients, 17 local physicians came together with civic leaders to create a new hospital.”

The group incorporated as Sutter Hospital Association in 1921, naming it after its neighbor, Sutter’s Fort, which cared for Gold Rush pioneers as Sacramento’s first hospital. The first Sutter Hospital was built two years later and opened in December 1923 as “the most modern hospital to be found in the state,” according to The Sacramento Bee. It was the first private, non-sectarian hospital in the city, and the first to offer private rooms.

The hospital became not-for-profit in 1935 and changed its name to Sutter General Hospital. It opened Sutter Maternity Hospital in 1937 two miles away and it soon expanded its services and was renamed Sutter Memorial Hospital. In the 1980s, the old Sutter General Hospital was replaced by a modern facility across the street from Sutter’s Fort, and in 2015 all adult and pediatric services were combined under one roof when the Anderson Lucchetti Women’s and Children’s Center opened essentially in the same location as the original Sutter Hospital.

First Sutter Hospital
The first Sutter Hospital opened in December 1923 as California’s “most modern hospital.” Now, Sutter Health is an integrated healthcare system that includes 24 hospitals in Northern California.

A Health Network Grows

The 1980s and 1990s saw tremendous growth for Sutter. Struggling community hospitals in Roseville, Auburn, Jackson, Davis, Modesto and other nearby cities merged with what was then known as Sutter Community Hospitals. Then came the deal that more than doubled the healthcare system. In 1996, Sutter Community Hospitals merged with a group of Bay Area hospitals and physician groups known as California Healthcare System. These included such large, well-respected, historic hospitals as California Pacific Medical Center in San Francisco and Alta Bates in the East Bay. This new system became, simply, Sutter Health.

Now as a model of healthcare integration, Sutter Health provides a user-friendly system centered around patient care — a system that offers greater access to quality healthcare while holding the line on costs. This connectivity allows Sutter teams to provide innovative, high-quality and life-saving care to more than 3 million Californians. Sutter’s integrated care model allows care teams and care locations to use the power of the network to share ideas, technologies and best practices, ultimately providing better care and a user-friendly experience, achieving healthier patient outcomes and reducing costs.

Our Heroes Wear Scrubs
Grateful community members are thanking Sutter Health front-line workers throughout Northern California.

An Integrated Network Fights COVID-19

Today, Sutter Health’s hospitals and physician groups don’t operate in a vacuum. Each hospital is supported by a larger system that can share knowledge and send materials, equipment and even manpower to where they are needed most. The system is called the Sutter Health Emergency Management System, which is organized after the federal government’s National Incident Command System.

Here’s how it works: Part of the Sutter Health Emergency Management System is a team throughout the network that works on gathering and purchasing the necessary supplies and equipment needed during this pandemic, including N95 masks and ventilators. Another team monitors bed space to ensure that each hospital can care for a COVID-19 patient surge. Clinical team members across the network are working together to address any issues that may unfold and to share best practices as they treat coronavirus patients.

That’s the power of a not-for-profit, integrated healthcare network.

“We are leveraging the strength of our united teams to increase our capacity and knowledge, and to provide the necessary equipment,” Cheney said. “We are preparing all of our network hospitals in the event we see a surge in patients due to COVID-19. Thanks to the integrated system that has been more than 100 years in the making, we are prepared for a pandemic of this magnitude now more than ever.”

The Surprising Place Where COVID-19 Can Appear

Posted on Apr 3, 2020 in Carousel, Pediatric Care, Quality, Safety, Scroll Images, Sutter Medical Center, Sacramento, Uncategorized

SACRAMENTO, Calif. – If your child is in diapers or is being potty-trained, don’t poo-poo this advice. During this coronavirus pandemic, it may just save your life or that of a loved one.

Paul Walsh, M.D., medical director of the Pediatric Emergency Department at Sutter Medical Center, Sacramento, says that babies and small children may not show any signs at all of being sick with COVID-19. But the “presents” they’re leaving behind may be especially harmful as they could contain traces of the virus.

Dr. Walsh said hand-washing during this time is important for everyone, but it’s critical for those who are changing diapers or potty-training toddlers.

“One of the cases that came out of China was a child who was orphaned at 6 months old because he was shedding lots of the coronavirus, but had no symptoms whatsoever,” he said. “So remember to wash your hands thoroughly after every diaper change or potty time.”

Dr. Walsh admits that everyone is at risk for catching the virus, but children usually handle such sicknesses much better than adults do.

“Children have vigorous immune systems,” Dr. Walsh says. “It’s not just with this virus, but with most colds and other sicknesses. Their bodies aggressively fight off the sickness.”

With the first death of an infant who tested positive for COVID-19, Dr. Walsh said parents shouldn’t be too anxious.

“There’s no need to freak out,” he said, “but be vigilant with hand-washing and social distancing. Observe your children in their activities. And, especially, keep them away from seniors. They’re still the most at risk.”

Dr. Paul Walsh treats a child in the dedicated Pediatric Emergency Department at Sutter Medical Center, Sacramento.

After Saving Teen’s Life, School Nurse Pleads for Training

Posted on Feb 7, 2020 in Cardiac, Pediatric Care, Scroll Images, Sutter Medical Center, Sacramento, Uncategorized

SACRAMENTO, Calif. – Kathy Papa, a school nurse with the Live Oak Unified School District, spreads her duties among five schools. It was luck – some may say fate or providence – that she was at Live Oak High School just after lunch on Jan. 13 when she got a call to go to English teacher Dani Fernandez’s classroom.

Use of AED
Pediatric electrophysiologist Dr. Oleg Kovalenko of Sutter Children’s Center demostrates how to use an AED.

When she arrived, she found 14-year-old Annalese Contreras slumped in her desk in full cardiac arrest, not breathing and without a pulse. Having been a hospital registered nurse, Kathy knew immediately what was wrong and what needed to be done, but never did she think she’d come upon this situation outside the hospital without a skilled team to assist her.

Kathy immediately sprung into action, starting rescue breaths, directing the 911 call, having two classmates get Annalese out of the desk and onto the floor so compressions could be started, and sending Fernandez to get the school’s portable defibrillator, called an AED. The school had it for years, but it had never been used. After a few successions of CPR, the AED arrived and Kathy applied the pads. The second shock did the trick and Annalese’s heart was back beating. She was then stabilized by EMTs and airlifted to the Sutter Medical Center Children’s Center. 

Annalese suffered cardiac arrest due to ventricular fibrillation, an event that is often fatal. Thanks to Kathy’s heroics and the care she received at the Sutter Children’s Center, Annalese is alive and now recuperating at home. Sutter Children’s Center pediatric electrophysiologist Oleg Kovalenko, M.D., pinpointed her ventricular arrhythmia and Annalese had a defibrillator called an ICD implanted by Sutter electrophysiologist Jonathan Man, M.D., to shock her heart into the correct rhythm when it detects irregular heartbeats.

“Cardiac arrest is an electrical abnormality in the heart. It leads to sudden death in many, many cases and leads to 2,000 deaths a year in children,” said Dr. Kovalenko, Sutter Medical Center’s medical director of pediatric electrophysiology. “In cardiac arrest, there’s no blood flow to your brain and your organs, and the longer a patient stays in this condition, the less chance of survival,” he said, noting that usually that’s just three to five minutes. “The only way to fix it is to shock.”

Annalese Contreras, center, was saved by school nurse Kathy Papa, left, who received the Heartsaver Hero Award from Liam Connelly of the American Heart Association.

Thankfully, Annalese received those shocks within a few minutes. For her efforts, Papa received a Heartsaver Hero Award from the American Heart Association. The AHA and Sutter Medical Center physicians urged all schools to have an AED on-site and train staff on CPR and how to use the defibrillator. Papa started working at the school district in 2019 and already had classes set up to train staff on both, and this event has made it even more important in the staff’s eyes.

As Dan Falco, co-medical director of the Sutter Medical Center Children’s Center said, “That school nurse is the real hero here.” However, Papa was quick to point out that the quick action on the part of Fernandez and the two classmates got Annalese out of the desk are heroes, too.

Annalese’s parents are so grateful to the school and Sutter Children’s Center staff for saving their daughter’s life that they traveled from Live Oak to the hospital to thank them personally and shared their thanks publicly through the media.

“I’d just like to give thanks to everybody – the school, the nurse, the emergency room, the ambulance, the helicopter, the EMS and the hospital – because if it wasn’t for all of them, my daughter wouldn’t be here today,” said Annalese’s father, Felipe Contreras. “I consider all you guys heroes.”

As for Papa, she had a plea: “I want the public to be aware that anyone can save a life, and it just takes a day of training or even just a few hours so that you know what to do in case of an emergency. And,” she said, holding up a portable AED, “this awesome device saves lives. And we all can see that that has happened.”

Here is a video of this story from Fox 40 in Sacramento.

Helping Mind the Gap on Cardiovascular Diseases

Posted on Feb 7, 2020 in Alta Bates Summit Medical Center, California Pacific Medical Center, Cardiac, Expanding Access, Innovation, Quality, Research, Scroll Images, Sutter Medical Center of Santa Rosa, Sutter Medical Center, Sacramento, Sutter Medical Foundation, Sutter Roseville Medical Center

Heart valve imaging
Heart valve imaging

Lifesavers appear in big sizes and small. For patient Adam Livingstone, rescue was a dime-sized clip that restored his heart’s normal rhythm and size. For months, Livingstone had been experiencing shortness of breath, chest pain and fatigue. Diagnosed with mitral valve regurgitation, a minimally invasive procedure to repair the valve was performed at Sutter Medical Center, Sacramento—one of Sutter’s sites where researchers evaluate new devices for treating damaged or diseased heart valves.

The Heart’s Finely Orchestrated Blood Flow

Heart valves
Heart valves

Like a musical conductor, the heart oversees rhythm and flow, circulating blood to each of its chambers in a coordinated, unidirectional symphony.

THE MITRAL VALVE

Mitral regurgitation, the most common type of heart valve disorder, occurs when blood leaks backward through the mitral valve when the left ventricle closes.

Some patients undergo non-surgical heart valve repair with transcatheter mitral valve repair (TMVR) with MitraClip®.2 During the procedure, doctors thread a catheter into a large leg vein reaching the heart. Then a dime-sized clip clamps the improperly working valve, allowing it to close more tightly with less backward blood flow.

“Some research participants recover faster and resume normal activities within a week of the procedure, and may not require lifelong anticoagulant medications, repeat surgeries, or re-hospitalization,” says David Roberts, M.D., FACC, FSCAI, medical director of cardiovascular services at Sutter in the Valley Area.

A new clinical trial at Sutter called PASCAL CLASP IID/IIF will test the safety and effectiveness of TMVR with the PASCAL Transcatheter Valve Repair System® compared with MitraClip® in patients with mitral regurgitation.3

For patients with severe mitral regurgitation, Sutter’s CPMC seeks to enroll patients in a clinical trial called SM3, which assesses the safety and efficacy of the SAPIEN M3 System™.4

“In this study, we are evaluating a new type of mitral valve that may provide a minimally invasive alternative to surgery for high-risk patients with severe mitral valve disease,” says David Daniels, M.D., co-director of Sutter’s Structural Heart Program in the Bay Area, and principal investigator of the SM3 clinical trial at Sutter.

Some patients develop mitral valve disease when calcium deposits accumulate on the fibrous ring attached to the mitral valve leaflets. For these patients with mitral annular calcification (MAC), Sutter will begin offering enrollment in the Summit clinical trial, which will test the safety and effectiveness of the Tendyne™ transcatheter mitral valve.5

“Previous approaches to treat patients with MAC have mainly involved the off-label use of transcatheter aortic valves,” says Dr. Roberts. “But this strategy may lead to residual mitral regurgitation and the need for open-heart surgery. Sutter’s participation in Summit may lead to novel ways to care for this hard-to-treat subset of patients.”

THE TRICUSPID AND AORTIC VALVES

Although a skilled conductor, sometimes the heart needs help to maintain proper blood flow for musical perfection. To the rescue: Sutter researchers test interventional devices designed to treat patients with diseased or damaged tricuspid and aortic valves.

In one new clinical trial, Sutter researchers will collect information about treatment for severe aortic regurgitation, a condition typically treated with aortic valve replacement surgery.

This study will examine the use of TAVR (Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement), a minimally invasive procedure designed to replace the aortic valve inside the heart. In this study, TAVR will be performed using the JenaValve™ Pericardial TAVR System, designed to help treat patients with severe aortic regurgitation or severe aortic stenosis.6

“Until now, all commercially available TAVR valves have focused on aortic stenosis, or a restricted valve,” says Dr. Daniels, co-principal investigator of the TAVR with JenaValve™ clinical trial at Sutter. “The JenaValve™ may allow researchers to treat patients with a leaky valve in the absence of any calcium. Currently these patients are only candidates for open-heart surgery.”

Additionally, Sutter researchers at CPMC and Sutter Medical Center are seeking to enroll patients who have tricuspid regurgitation in a clinical trial called TRILUMINATE.

The TRILUMINATE study will evaluate the safety and effectiveness of the Tricuspid Valve Repair System™ (TVRS) for treating moderate or severe tricuspid regurgitation in patients currently on medical management and who are deemed appropriate for percutaneous transcatheter intervention.7

  • Learn more about Sutter cardiovascular diseases research and clinical trials.
  • If you are suffering from mitral or tricuspid valve regurgitation, aortic valve stenosis or other heart valve disorder, talk to your cardiologist to see if research participation and/or valve replacement or repair is right for you.

References:

  1. American Heart Association.
  2. MitraClip™ is manufactured by Abbott Medical Devices.
  3. The PASCAL clinical trial is sponsored by Edwards Life Sciences, makers of the Transcatheter Valve Repair System®.
  4. The S3 clinical trial is sponsored by Edwards Life Sciences, makers of the SAPIEN M3 System™.
  5. The Summit clinical trial is sponsored by Abbott Medical Devices, makers of the Tendyne System™.
  6. The JenaValve™ clinical trial is sponsored by JenaValve Technology, Inc., makers of the Pericardial Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement (TAVR) System.
  7. The TRILUMINATE clinical trial is sponsored by Abbott Medical Devices, makers of the Tricuspid Valve Repair System™.